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Артёменко Елена

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Architecture in Greek means "architect", "builder" - the art of building and decorating buildings. Works of architecture are the giant pyramids and majestic temples, fortresses, graceful palaces and sports facilities.

Architecture is not just the erection of buildings. An architect strives to create an artistic image, and it does not matter what kind of facility it is. Through the abstract representation of gravity and lightness, heaviness and harmony, constraint and freedom, austerity and decorative - an architect conveys the image of a man and the world that surrounds him.

The monument of architecture can not exist in an artificial museum space, like a painting or sculpture, and in fact an architectural monument is closely connected with the world around him. And it is impossible to break this unity does not destroy the integrity of an artistic image.

The interaction of architecture and the surrounding area in urban development is of particular importance. Architect can speed up or slow down the pace of city life, having somehow highways, planning this or that width of the street, defining the size of buildings.

Harmoniously organized urban space has beneficial effects on humans. On the contrary, monotony of living quarters, featureless, similar to one another, multi-storey buildings constructed from the standard block has a negative effect on the psyche, make people feel lonely and lost.

Connection of architecture with the world of ideas prevailing in society in a particular epoch is much closer than the other kinds of arts. Unlike a painter or a sculptor, an architect can not create his work alone. Construction requires time, resources and participation of a lot of people

An architect must be sure to get an approval of his idea in society, otherwise his project will not be realized. A lot of talented projects remained on paper only because it seemed too unusual to contemporaries.

Architectural product expresses the views, tastes, and the goal not only of a particular person - the author of the project - but the whole historical epoch.

Solemnity and power of government approval can be traced in the Roman triumphal arches, mystic impulse of the soul, striving to God - in the temple architecture. The twenties of the last century is a period of searching for new architectural techniques, principles of urban development.

Architects transform the natural material, that is they create an architectural design. An external outline of a building has a definite shape, according to the architectural forms to each other and to the building as a whole is called a proportion.

The creation of inner space (area, park, garden) is a particularity of architecture), and an architect gives the expressive properties to this space, making it a main part of artistic language.

Design, shape, proportion and space form a unity of characteristic features of architecture - a style .*

On the one hand the style of architecture is the external form, an artistic image, on the other hand it is a reflection of certain conception of the era.

First of all a style of the era - is a style of architecture.

I live in Dzerzhinsky region of Nizhny Tagil. The history of the area began in the 30-ies of the last century. For history eighty years are almost the present time, but for me it's the distant past, to meet the past I can simply walk along the streets of the old region, looking at the facades of buildings built in the 30-ies of the last century.

Today they are our guides, with their help, we can see people and even hear the era which separates generations.

The era of 30-ies is one of the most controversial in the history of Russia. At that time young people wanted to create not only magnificent shops, but also a new man. Thousands of "special settlers" from familiar rural life were sent into a furious pace of industrial giants.

The Urals, like other Soviet citizens believed in the ideas of socialism and participate in its construction. New companies, power plants and railways were built in undeveloped areas, new towns arose where there were once forests and swamps. A plant was built, together with water supply, sewerage, transport routes, paths for pedestrians.

New birth of Nizhny Tagil connected with construction of Novo-Tagil Metallurgical and Ural Carriage Plant in 1920-1930-ies. Two new residential areas were built separately to come together in one city in the future. Residential area of Uralvagonstroy was designed with a rectangular grid of streets and development of two major highways: Lenin and Stalin Streets (now Vagonostroiteley).

The corps of Uralvagozavod were built in the style of constructivism.

To improve the design and building culture of our architects, it was decided to use the experience of foreign experts.

For example, in developing one of the largest enterprises in the country - Ural Carriage Plant in Nizhny Tagil experience of American professionals of wheels firm Griffin (USA) was used. However, researchers noted that "the whole complex was designed by American styles and designs, as in the drafting of industrial buildings attended by representatives of several U.S. refineries."

All production workshops in accordance with the process were located in four parallel rows and separated by three-plant highways width of 35-40 meters. Most of the buildings erected at the plant had its own peculiarities: the height of individual plants up to 12-18 m and length 200-400 m. One of the most extensive facilities of the plant - vagonosborochny shop - over 800 m .*

In the architectural image of shops trapezoidal and M-shaped lanterns, creating an unusual and expressive silhouette of the building played an active role.

Aesthetics of late constructivism identified architectural image of motor shop Uralvagonzavod, built in the mid 1930's. Volumetric - spatial solution of the object and its main facade is supported by a silhouette of the plant U-shaped lantern lights. The main architectural and artistic features of an industrial building is the fact that half the height of the facades of single-storey shop has decorative stucco frieze.

Downtown streets were compositional backbone of the region planning structure. Buildings located in the first streets Ilyich and Stalin were to provide residents easy access not only to the workplace, but also to the welfare and educational institutions. Translated into practice the famous "functional principle", according to which "imposed" on each other two flows - goods on highways and "assembly-line mass movement." Everything had to be simple and clear functionally.

Banja and the club of engineers and technical workers, which is now the municipal Youth Theatre, have become one of the first buildings in our area.

In October 1932, the newspaper “Uralvagonstroy” noted that “the main object of work - a bath with a capacity of 75 persons per hour is built on 80% ".* There was not only the general section, but also the rooms with baths and showers, hairdresser and coffee shop .**

The monumental image of the bath more closely associated with the administrative building or the Palace of Culture.

The main focus is an entrance formed by two powerful pylons (pylons - massive pillars that stand on the sides of the entrance) and a vertical glass center. The triumph of rationalism in architecture is expressed in the clear and strict building with long rows of windows.

Construction of public buildings was a manifestation of “how the new authority cared of people” aimed at providing people with “all elements which make our life comfortable”. A raion banya and engineers’ club were built in the late 1930s. Triumph of rationalism in architecture is represented in the clear-cut and austere design of the banya building with the band-type windows arrangement. The projecting body of its entrance formed with two powerful pylons and vertical glassed center is the main element of his clear-cut and austere styled building.

Asceticism, and at the same time monumental features are typical for interior design of the building.

The Club engineering staff also has the original facade, where the principle of symmetry is used. At first sight, the decisions of architects in the design of the main entrance influenced tradition of late classicism, where the facades of buildings were decorated by porticos with pediments filled with stucco ornamentation. Entrance to the building is designed in a niche high in two floors, located in the center of the main facade.

Columns in the building have a regular rectangular shape in accordance with the traditions of constructivism. The rise of the roof in a triangle above the entrance emphasizes the symmetry of the main facade of the building and gives the image of the club some solemnity.

Difficult working conditions, massive involvement of women in production, environmental pollution has led to an increase in incidence in the region, a high mortality rate. It was necessary to improve medical treatment and transfer hospital from temporary premises in the shanty capital building.

Among the medical facilities the hospital was constructed in the forms of constructivism in 1930. Building (L-shaped in plan) consists of two tiered buildings that form the space of the intersection of two streets - Vagonostroiteley and Illich. The basis of expressive composition is a contrasting combination of a vertical rectangular end of the storied body and the adjacent five curved balconies, emphasizing rounded adjacent portion of the facade.

This unusual combination of artistic expression and not only make a difference in the construction of the space of the crossroads, but also emphasizes the location of the main input node on the angular plot of the facade. The ground floor of the building, as compared with the other, punctuated by color, it is identified among surrounding buildings.

Panorama area of the old Vagonka is a typical example of building and sotsgorod tehposelok in 1930-ies. Schools number 9 and 70 are parallel to each other, between the main road leading to the Plant. Clear U-shaped symmetrical facades of schools is an example of development of constructivism.

The construction of housing began. About two dozen capital three-and five-storey residential buildings were built in the constructivist style.

The House of Engineers is one of the most interesting buildings of the prewar Vagonka. It is also known under the name of the Management house since it has long domiciled the managers of Uralvagonzavod and raion officers. This house is one of the last monuments of the epoch of constructivism later eradicated as thought to be “alien” to an emerging socialistic idea. An austere silhouette of this building is animated by the cornered cantilevered balcony projected out of the wall, low heavy duty pylons which flank its main entrance and two arches with a band type articulation, overlooking above it. As designed in the project of 1934 the pylons had to be topped with two statues of athletic appearance, which by virtue of discord with the style chosen were later replaced with two large balls crested by the sculptors Donskiye of Moscow.

The area of old Vagonka is an example of the time of socialist settlements and workers’ towns of the 1930s, which feature a typical tendency to locate streets and buildings so as to provide community with quick access to both jobs and cultural, recreational institutions. It was a famous “functional conveyor principle” providing for overlapping of two flows – of freight transported along the roads and the conveyor type movement of human resources. Large communal houses would be grouped into blocks of which each enclosed a kindergarten, a nursery, a medical center, a laundry and a banya. Twenty three four-storey brick houses rising above wooden barracks and log houses served as protoplasm and embodiment of happy socialist future. The houses being built gravitated to the constructivism style which features laconicism, dynamism and asymmetry. A 3d design of House №6, Paton Street is based upon prevailing proportional contrasts emphasized by large windows, rounded loggias and half-round projections of flights of stairs. In Soviet Union to have just recently walked over a literacy threshold, public education is especially favored.

This building is next to my school. Its U-shaped, rectangular protrusions access of doorways, a narrow horizontal line, highlighting the top floor of the building - are elements of the style of constructivism.

Architects’ plans 20-30's were simply grand: it was assumed ensure each family member with a separate room, green areas, kindergartens and schools had to be created around the house, in accordance with the sanitary requirements. The first builders believed sincerely that the barracks were built for several years and that they would soon move to a magnificent houses of "Sotsgorod”.

Houses on the streets of Ordzhonikidze and Dzerzhinsky, patios are silent witnesses of the first inhabitants’ dreams.

However, the accelerated construction of industrial giants, limited funds for public works quickly found a complete utopian architectural projects in those difficult years.